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  • >

    KTP Crystal

    Potassium Titanyl Phosphate (KTiOPO4 or KTP) is widely used in both commercial and military lasers including laboratory and medical systems, range-finders, lidar, optical communication and industrial systems.


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    CASTECH's KTP is featured by:

           ?    Large nonlinear optical coefficient;
           ?    Wide angular bandwidth and small walk-off angle;
           ?    Broad temperature and spectral bandwidth;
           ?    High electro-optic coefficient and low dielectric constant;
           ?    Large figure of merit;
           ?    Nonhydroscopic, chemically and mechanically stable.

    CASTECH offers:
          
    ?    Strict quality control;
         
     ?    Large crystal size up to 20x20x40mm3 and maximum length of 60mm;
          
    ?    Quick delivery (2 weeks for polished only, 3 weeks for coated);
          
      Unbeatable price and quantity discount;
          
    ?   Technical support;
          
    ?    AR-coating, mounting and re-polishing service.

     


    Table 1. Chemical and Structural Properties

     Crystal Structure

     Orthorhombic, space group Pna21,point group mm2

     Lattice Parameter

     a=6.404?, b=10.616?, c=12.814A, Z=8

     Melting Point

     About 1172°C

     Mohs Hardness  

     5

     Density

     3.01 g/cm3

     Thermal Conductivity Coefficient

     13W/m/K

     Thermal Expansion Coefficient

     ax=11x10-6/℃, ay=9x10-6/℃, az=0.6x10-6/℃

     

    Table 2. Optical and Nonlinear Optical Properties

     Transparency Range

     350~4500nm

     SHG Phase Matchable Range

     497 ~ 1800nm  (Type II)

     Thermal-optic Coefficients (/°C)

     dnx/dT=1.1X10-5
     dny/dT=1.3X10-5
     dnz/dT=1.6X10-5

     Absorption Coefficients

    <0.1%/cm at 1064nm    <1%/cm at 532nm

     For Type II SHG of a Nd:YAG laser at 1064nm

    Temperature Acceptance: 24°C·cm 
    Spectral Acceptance: 0.56nm·cm
    Angular Acceptance: 14.2mrad·cm (φ);55.3mrad·cm (θ)
    Walk-off Angle: 0.55°

    NLO Coefficients

    deff(II)≈(d24 - d15)sin2Φsin2θ - (d15sin2Φ + d24cos2Φ)sinθ

    Non-vanished NLO Susceptibilities

    d31=6.5 pm/V           d24=7.6 pm/V
    d32= 5 pm/V            d15=6.1 pm/V
    d33=13.7 pm/V

    Electro-optic Coefficients:

                      r13

                      r23

                      r33

                      r51

                      r42

    Low frequecy(pm/V)        High frequency(pm/V)

                   9.5                               8.8                   

                  15.7                             13.8

                   36.3                             35.0

                    7.3                               6.9

                    9.3                               8.8

    Dielectric Constantεeff=13

    Sellmeier Equations  

        (λ in μm)

    nx2=3.0065+0.03901/(λ2-0.04251)-0.01327λ2
    ny2=3.0333+0.04154/(λ2-0.04547)-0.01408λ2 
    nz2=3.3134+0.05694/(λ2-0.05658)-0.01682λ2

     

    Applications for SHG and SFG of Nd: lasers:
           KTP is the most commonly used material for frequency doubling of Nd:YAG and other Nd-doped lasers, particularly when the power density is at a low or medium level. To date, extra- and intra-cavity frequency doubled Nd:lasers using KTP have become a preferred pumping source for visible dye lasers and tunable Ti:Sapphire lasers as well as their amplifiers. They are also useful green sources for many research and industry applications.

        
    ?    More than 80% conversion efficiency and 700mJ green laser were obtained with a 900mJ injection-seeded Q- switch Nd:YAG lasers by using extra-cavity KTP.
        
       8W green laser was generated from a 15W LD pumped Nd:YVO4 with intra-cavity KTP.
        
    ?    200mW green outputs are generated from 1W LD pumped Nd:YVO4 lasers by using CASTECH's 2x2x5mm3 KTP and 3x3x1mm3 Nd:YVO4 .

     

        KTP is also being used for intracavity mixing of 0.81μm diode and 1.064μm Nd:YAG laser to generate blue light and intracavity SHG of Nd:YAG or Nd:YAP lasers at 1.3μm to produce red light.

     

    Fig. 1 Type II KTP SHG in XY Plane                     Fig. 2 Type II KTP SHG in XZ Plane

     

    Applications for OPG, OPA and OPO:
           As an efficient OPO crystal pumped by a Nd:laser and its second harmonics, KTP plays an important role for parametric sources for tunable outputs from visible (600nm) to mid-IR (4500nm), as shown in Fig. 3 and Fig. 4. Generally, KTP's OPOs provide stable and continuous pulse outputs (signal and idler) in fs, with 108 Hz repetition rate and a miniwatt average power level. A KTP's OPO that are pumped by a 1064nm Nd:YAG laser has generated as high as above 66% efficiency for degenerately converting to 2120nm.

     

     

                  

    Fig. 3  OPO pumped at 532 in X-Z plane            Fig. 4  OPO pumped at 532 in X-Y plane

     

           The novel developed application is the non-critical phase matched (NCPM) KTP's OPO/OPA. As shown in Fig.5, for pumping wavelength range from 0.7μm to 1μm, the output can cover from 1.04μm to 1.45μm (signal) and from 2.15μm to 3.2μm (idler). More than 45% conversion efficiency was obtained with narrow output bandwidth and good beam quality.

     

     Fig. 5 Type II  NCPM OPO

     

    Applications for E-O Devices:

          In addition to unique NLO features, KTP also has promising E-O and dielectric properties that are comparable to LiNbO3. These advantaged properties make KTP extremely useful to various E-O devices. Table 3 is a comparison of KTP with other E-O modulator materials commonly used:

     

    Table 3. Electro-Optic Modulator Materials

      Material

    Phase

    Amplitude

      ε

    N

    R(pm/V)

    k(10-6/°C)

    N7r2/ε(pm/V)2r(pm/V)k(10-6/°C)n7r2/ε(pm/V)2

    KTP

    LiNbO3

    KD*P

    LiIO3

    15.42

    27.9

    48.0

    5.9

    1.80

    2.20

    1.47

    1.74

    35.0

    8.8

    24.0

    6.4

    31

    82

    9

    24

    6130

    7410

    178

    335

    27.0

    20.1

    24.0

    1.2

    11.7

    42

    8

    15

    3650

    3500

    178

    124

          From Table 3, clearly, KTP is expected to replace LiNbO3 crystal in the considerable volume application of E-O modulators, when other merits of KTP are combined into account, such as high damage threshold, wide optical bandwidth (>15GHZ), thermal and mechanical stability, and low loss, etc.

    Applications for Optical Waveguides:
          Based on the ion-exchange process on KTP substrate, low loss optical waveguides developed for KTP have created novel applications in integrated optics. Table 4 gives a comparison of KTP with other optical waveguide materials. Recently, a type II SHG conversion efficiency of 20%/W/cm2 was achieved by the balanced phase matching, in which the phase mismatch from one section was balanced against a phase mismatch in the opposite sign from the second. Furthermore, segmented KTP waveguides have been applied to the type I quasi-phase-matchable SHG of a tunable Ti:Sapphire laser in the range of 760-960mm, and directly doubled diode lasers for the 400-430nm outputs.


    Table 4. Electro-Optic Waveguide Materials

    Material

    r (pm/V)

    N

    εeff(ε11ε33)1/2

    n3r/εeff (pm/V)

    KTP

    LiNbO3

    KNbO3

    BNN

    BN

    GaAs

    BaTiO3

    35

    29

    25

    56

    56-1340

    1.2

    28

    1.86

    2.20

    2.17

    2.22

    2.22

    3.6

    2.36

    13

    37

    30

    86

    119-3400

    14

    373

    17.3

    8.3

    9.2

    7.1

    5.1-0.14

    4.0

    1.0

     

    CASTECH provides the following AR-coatings:
              Dual Band AR-coating (DBAR) of KTP for SHG of 1064nm. low reflectance (R<0.2% at 1064nm and R<0.5% at="" high="" damage="" threshold="">300MW/cm2 at both wavelengths); long durability.

              Broad Band AR-coating (BBAR) of KTP for OPO applications.
           ?    High reflectivity coating: HR1064nm&HT532nm, R>99.8%@1064nm, T>90%@532nm.
           ?    Other coatings are available upon request.


    CASTECH's Warranty on KTP Specifications:
               Dimension tolerance:(W±0.1mm)x(H±0.1mm)x(L+0.5/-0.1mm)(L≥2.5mm)
                                                       (W±0.1mm)x(H±0.1mm)x(L+0.1/-0.1mm) (L<2.5mm)
            
    ?    Clear aperture: central 90% of the diameter
          
      ?    No visible scattering paths or centers when inspected by a 50mW green laser
           
    ?    Flatness: less than λ/8 @ 633nm
           
    ?    Transmitting wavefront distortion: less than λ/8 @ 633nm
           
    ?    Chamfer: [email protected]°
           
    ?    Chip:≤0.1mm
            
    ?    Scratch/Dig code: better than 10/ 5(MIL-PRF-13830B)
           
    ?    Parallelism: better than 20 arc seconds
           
    ?    Perpendicularity: ≤5 arc minutes
           
    ?    Angle tolerance: △θ≤0.25°, △ф≤0.25°
           
    ?    Damage threshold [GW/cm2 ]:>0.5 for 1064nm, TEM00, 10ns, 10HZ (AR-coated)
                                                                      >0.3 for 532nm, TEM00, 10ns, 10HZ (AR-coated)

     

     

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